Assalamou aleikoum wa Rahmatoullah wa barakatou,The Mongol Threat
In the meanwhile, Iraq, Iran, and Khuraasaan continued to smother under the cruel domination of the Tataars. The Mamlooks who were ruling over Egypt, Syria and the Hijaaz (Arabian peninsula) attempted several times to capture Iraq but failed each time. When it was learnt that the Tataars were planning to conquer Damascus, the Mamlook Sultaan, al-Maalik an-Naasir Muhammad bin Qalawoon left Egypt with a powerful army to check the advance of the Tataars.
The two forces met in a bloody battle in 699 A.H./1299 C.E. but the Sultaan was defeated and he returned to Egypt. Now Damascus lay open before the Tataar forces led by Ghazzaan, also known as Mahmood, the great grandson of Ghengis Khaan. Consequently, all the nobles including the religions scholars, judges, administrators and traders fled from Damascus where total chaos and anarchy held sway in the face of the Tataar invasion.
At this critical moment Ibn Taymiyyah and their remaining notables decided to lead a delegation to meet Ghazzaan and pursue for peace of the city. Accordingly, the delegation led by Ibn Taymiyyah met Ghazzaan at Nabak (near Damascus) and he agreed to grant amnesty to the people of Damascus.
News of the Tataar army advancing towards Syria again reached Damascus in 702 A.H./1303 C.E. Delay in the arrival of Sultaan Qalawoon from Egypt caused panic among the people, many of whom began to abandon their homes for safer places. When Ibn Taymiyyah saw this, he began to urge the people to defend themselves and their city, thereby arresting the exodus. He also went personally to appeal to the Sultaan to speed up his journey to Damascus.
At last the Muslim forces of Egypt and Syria encountered the Tataar forces at Thaqab during Ramadhaan 702 A.H./1303 C.E. and after a bloody conflict the Muslims defeated and dispersed the Tataar armies.Jihaad Against Heretics
Ibn Taymiyyah's fight was not limited to the Soofees and the people who followed the heretical innovations; in addition, he fought against the Tataars who attacked the Muslim world and almost reached Damascus.
Once the Tataar threat was eliminated, Ibn Taymiyyah again devoted himself to his mission of his intellectual pursuit and teaching. At the same time, he continued to wage Jihaad against the heretical sects like the Baatinites, Ismaa.eelites, Haakimites and Nusayrites living in the hilly tracts of Syria who had invited the Crusaders and the Tataars to invade the Muslim lands, helped these invaders against the Muslims and looted and plundered the weak and defenceless population. Ibn Taymiyyah personally led expeditions against these sects.Religious Condition Of The Muslims
Apart from the external threats mentioned above, Islaam was also confronted at this time with internal dangers. There were Baatinites (an extremist Sheeite sect which confronted the Muslim Government at that time) and their followers, the Assassins (Hasheeshiyoon). Their creed was a mixture of Magian dogma and Platonic concepts which could easily sow the seeds of intellectual dissension and spread irreligousness and apostasy among the simple minded people. Then there were Muslims who, under the influence of the polytheistic beliefs and customs of the non-Muslims with whom they had free associations, began to glorify their saints (highly pious Soofee personalities - Walee-Allaah) as the Jews and the Christians were doing. Further more, some Soofee's orders like the Rifaa'iyyah had adopted certain neo-Platonic and Hindu doctrines which became so confused with the true Islaamic beliefs that it became almost impossible to distinguish one from the other.
In the wake of crusaders, some Christians were emboldened to censure Islaam and criticise the Prophet in their speeches and writings. In the intellectual circles of the Muslims there was stagnation and rigidity in their theological disputations and in their approach to the re-interpretation of the Sharee'ah. There was continuous polemical wranglings between the 'Asharites and Hanbaleeites. Finally, some of the philosophers, influenced by the theories of Plato and Aristotle, began to spread their agnostic ideas and concepts in total disregard to the teachings of Islaam.
These were the conditions pertaining to the time of Ibn Taymiyyah and which he had to contend. Ibn Taymiyyah formed a society along with his students and followers to renounce the polytheistic cults, un-Islaamic cults, un-Islaamic influences and heretical beliefs and practices among the Muslim masses. As a result of his enthusiastic and zealous reformative activities and condemnation of heresies, un-Islaamic innovation and practices at the visitation of graves of saints, he earned the displeasure of certain sectors of the population. Nonetheless, his popularity among the Muslim masses increased tremendously.
All this jihad against the enemies of Islaam did not help Ibn Taymiyyah with the 'ulamaa.. The authorities put him in jail many times until he died in jail because of his daring and free progressive opinions on many legal and social issues which angered his opponents, the followers of the Orthodox Schools of law.
However when Ibn Taymiyyah had the chance to punish his opponents among the 'ulamaa. who caused him all kinds of trouble and put him in jail many times, he showed the utmost of magnanimity and forgave them when the Sultaan an-Naasir Qalawoon gave him the chance to do so. He said: "If you kill them you will never find 'ulamaa. like them." The Sultaan said: "They harmed you many times and wanted to kill you!" Ibn Taymiyyah said: "Whoever harmed me is absolved, and who harmed the cause of Allaah and His Messenger, Allaah will punish him."
The Muslim historians, like adh-Dhahabee, Ibn Katheer, Ibn al-'Imad al-Hanbalee and many others praised Ibn Taymiyyah and considered him one of the greatest scholars of Islaam of all time.
He fought heretical innovations in religion which were wide spread during his time all over the Muslim world, especially certain acts and beliefs of some Soofee orders, like saint worship and visiting saints' tombs, and throwing themselves in the fire. His attack on the Soofees caused him a lot of trouble with the authorities whose leaders were under the influence of certain soofee leaders.
As a result of Ibn Taymiyyah's popularity, some influential religions scholars became jealous of him and even annoyed because he challenged the Qaadhee's on juridical matters. They therefore sought ways and means to discredit him in the eyes of the Government and the people. Ibn Taymiyyah rejected the teachings expounded in the al-Futuhaat al-Makkah ("the Makkan Revelations") and Fusoos al-Hakeem ("The Mosaic of Wisdom") of Shaykh Muheeuddeen ibn al-'Arabee (d.638 A.H./1240 C.E.) the most respected Soofee and teacher of tasawwuf - as incompatible with the teachings of the Qur.aan and the Sunnah, thereby earning the wrath of the Soofee's, and by being outspoken on Government policies, he earned the hostility of the government. Consequently he was summoned to Egypt in 705 A.H./1305 C.E.
When Ibn Taymiyyah arrived in Egypt, he was asked to attend a meeting of theologians, jurists and the chiefs of the state. During the session certain charges were levelled against him relating to his concepts of the nature and attributes of Allaah. He was not allowed to defend himself and was promptly imprisoned for about 16 months. While in prison, he diverted the attention of his followers from indulgence in frolics and amusements to a sense of piety, discipline and temperance. A number of prisoners became his devoted disciples on their release.
After Ibn Taymiyyah was released from prison in 707 A.H./1307 C.E. he decided to remain in Egypt for a while. Soon he began to deliver lectures in various Mosques and educational institutions before select gatherings of scholars, jurists and theologians. However, Ibn Taymiyyah's views on pantheistic monoism, intercession, etc were not received kindly and numerous complaints were made against him to the Sultaan. The religions scholars to whom the complaints were referred could not find any fault with Ibn Taymiyyah. However, as the administration was growing weary of the charges brought against him, he was detained for a while but was soon released on the unanimous request of the religions scholars. But when Sultaan Qalawoon abdicated in favour of his viceroy Baybaan al-Jashnikeer in 709 A.H./1309 C.E., Ibn Taymiyyah was exiled to Alexandria where, inspite of his internment, he earned himself a respectable position in the Academic and literary circles. Soon though Baybaan abdicated and Sultaan Qalawoon returned to Egypt and ordered Ibn Taymiyyah.Return To Damascus
In Cairo, Ibn Taymiyyah had busied himself in his teachings and reformative activities for about 3 years. At the same time, he acted as adviser to the Sultaan and was instrumental in having several important reforms introduced in Egypt and Syria. Several royal edicts were issued on his advice in 712 A.H./1312 C.E. He visited Jerusalem in the same year, then went for Hajj (pilgrimage) and eventually returned to Damascus in 713 A.H./1313 C.E. From now onward he devoted his attention primarily to juristic problems though he continued teaching. His chief disciple was ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (d.751 A.H./1350 C.E.) who was chiefly responsible for spreading his ideas.The Question Of Three Talaaq's
Ibn Taymiyyah like his forefathers was a Hanbaleeite and his legal opinions conformed to that school, though not exclusively. He often rejected the Hanbaleeite view just as in some matters he expressed disagreement with all the four principal juridicial schools. One such case in which he differed with them was in regard to the repudiation of one's wife by three divorces given at one time.
The issue was whether a divorce pronounced thrice at the same time took legal effect or not. This issue raised the following considerations:
• whether revocation of such a divorce was possible or not.
• whether the three sentences of divorce would be counted as one revocable pronouncement (talaaq) or taken as an irreversable separation.
• whether the wife so divorced could return to her husband or not without a halaalah (i.e until his divorced wife was married to another man who, in turn, after the consummation of the marriage, divorces).
All the earlier jurists and traditionalists, likewise a good number of the Prophet's companions were of the view that such a pronouncement, although being repugnant to the law as well as irregular and sinful, would be regarded as an implied divorce with legal effect. As against that Ibn Taymiyyah firmly held the opinion that the three sentences of divorce spoken at the same time should be regarded as one revocable divorce. The view of Ibn Taymiyyah happened to be against the official view which naturally brought him in conflict with the 'ulamaa on one hand and with the government on the other.
Consequently, the theologians tried to prevent him from expressing further legal opinion on such matters. In fact, a royal edict was issued from Cairo in 718AH/1318AD forbidding him from giving legal opinions in such cases.
Initially Ibn Taymiyyah abided by the edict but later again began giving legal judgment on this issue as he decided that it was improper for him to desist simply for fear of the government. As a result in 720 A.H./1320 C.E. he was detained in a citadel for just over five months till he was released on direct orders from Cairo.The Final Years
Between 721 A.H./1321 C.E. and 726 A.H./1326 C.E. Ibn Taymiyyah devoted himself to teaching in the Madrasah Hanbaleeyyah and his own Madrasah Qassaaseen and revising some of his earlier works. In 726 A.H./1326 C.E. his adversaries again conspired to have him imprisoned. Here he continued writing his exegesis of the Qur.aan as well as treatises and monographs on various issues.
Ibn Taymiyyah died in jail in Damascus on the night of Sunday-Monday 20th Dhul-Qa'dah 728 A.H./26-27 September 1328 C.E. at the age of 67, and is buried in the cemetery of the Soofiyyah in Damascus.
The people of Damascus, who held him in great honor, gave him a splendid funeral and an estimated 200,000 men and 15,000 women attended his funeral. He was buried at the Soofee cemetery in Damascus where his mother was buried.Character And Achievements
Ibn Taymiyyah occupied a highly honorable place among his contemporary religions scholars due to his prodigious memory, intellectual brilliance, encyclopedic knowledge and dauntless courage. He is described as a great orator, brave and fearless, resolute, disciplined, very pious, resigned and contended, noble and forgiving, just and ever determined.
Ibn Taymiyyah's reformative endeavors and literary pursuits cover a vast field which can be summarised as follows:
1 revival of faith in and adherence to "Tawheed"(oneness of Allaah).
2 eradication of pantheistic beliefs and customs.
3 criticism of philosophy, syllogistic logic and dialects in order to demonstrate the superiority of the Qur.aan and the sunnah.
4 extirpation of un-Islaamic beliefs through refutation of Christianity and Sheeism.
5 rejuvenation of Islaamic thought and its related sciences.
The total number of Ibn Taymiyyah's works is 621 though many of his writings have been lost. Some of Ibn Taymiyyah's writings dealing with the themes are listed below:
1 al-Jawaab as-Saheeh liman baddala Deen al-Maseeh (an answer to the criticism against Islaam by the Christians).
2 Radd 'ala al-Mantiqiyyeen (a refutation of the philosopher).
3 Kitaab as-Siyaasah ash-Shar'iyyah (deals with political theory and government in Islaam).
4 Minhaaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah (a refutation of Sheeite beliefs written in response to Minhaaj al-Karanmah of Ibn al-Mutahhir al-Hillee).
5 Ziyaarah al-Quboor (a criticism of saint-workshop, intercession, superstitious beliefs).
6 Majmoo'at ar-Rasaail al-Kubra (this book contains articles on various subjects).
7 Majmoo'at al-Fataawa (a collection of opinions on various issues).
8 Majmoo'at ar-Rasaail wa al-Masaail (contains articles and legal opinions on various issues).
9 Majmoo'at Shaykh al-Islaam Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (contains discussion on Islaamic jurisprudence and legal opinions enunciated by Ibn Taymiyyah).Conclusion
To include in the words of Mawlaana Abu al-Hasan 'Alee Nadawee who has paid a glowing tribute to Ibn Taymiyyah as follows:
"Ibn Taymiyyah interpreted the Qur.aan and Sunnah, established the superiority of Islaam over heresy, Philosophical concepts and other faiths and contributed to a genuine revival of religion after a deep study and deliberation that was necessary for lighting the religions and intellectual waywardness of the time. Seeking to surpass his opponents he mastered the methodology employed by them to attack Islaam. In fact, his learning, his erudition, his intellectual attainment and his mental grit always left his adversaries spell bound"(*1)
Little wonder then that Ibn Taymiyyah's contemporary and succeeding scholars have acclaimed him with such complimentary remarks as "The master spirit of the age", "The crown of scholars", "Last of the Enlightened scholars", and "A sign among the signs of God".
(*1) A. H. A. NADAWEE, Saviours of Islaamic spirit, Vol. 2, Academy of Islaamic research and publications, Lucknow, India, 1974, p24.