The Conditions of Wudhu' (Islamic Ablution)
The Conditions Of Wudhu' are ten:
3) Age of discernment.
5) That the one performing it intends to fulfill it, not having the intention (to wash) for some other reason, until he has complete the processes of purification.
6) That what caused one to have to make Wudhu' has stopped.
7) Before making Wudhu', the performance of Istinja' or Istijmar.
8) Purity of water being used, and its being lawful.
9) Removing anything (a stain, for example) that prevents the water from reaching one's skin.
10) That when one makes ablution, the time of prayer has arrived: This condition is particular to one who is afflicted with a sickness whereby he loses control of his bladder - for instance, causing him to urinate frequently.
Al-Wadhu' refers to the water that is used for ablution; Al-Wudhu' refers to actions involved in performing ablution. The definition of Al-Wudhu' in the Shari'ah is as follows: using pure water on those body parts that Allah has clarified and legislated. Islam, Sanity, Age of Discernment, and Intention
: The first three have been clarified in lesson six - the Conditions of Prayer.
Intention is special because it is a condition for all deeds, and by intention, I am referring to the resolve in one's heart to perform Wudhu', the resolve to apply Allah's Commands and His Messenger's commands. It is not, however, legislated to utter one's intention, for doing so is an innovation. Shaikh AI-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said, "Intention resides in the heart, and not on the tongue, a principle that the Muslim Imams (i.e. scholars) not only agree upon, but agree upon for all acts of worship." Even were one to wash all of the required body parts for the Wudhu', it would not be correct unless he actually intended to make the Wudhu'. So, if one were to wash those body parts, say, only to remove impurities, then his Wudhu' would not be correct. Furthermore, the intention has to continue all the way through, until he finishes purifying himself; if, in the middle of making Wudhu', he changes his intention from the Wudhu' to something else, his Wudhu' is cancelled. That what caused one to have to make Wudhu' has stopped
: This means that if one has to perform Wudhu' because he defecated, for example, then his stool should completely stop flowing before he makes Wudhu'. The same can be said for vomiting: he should completely finish vomiting before starting to make Wudhu'. Before making Wudhu', the performance of 'lstinja' or lstijmar
: Istinja' means to purify oneself from urine or stool, using water, and in some contexts, it could mean Istijmar as well. Istijmar means to purify oneself from the same impurities using stones or what carries the same ruling as stones (such as toilet paper in the present day). Whoever, then, has relieved himself, must perform Istinja' or Istijmar before making Wudhu'. But contrary to what some people think, if one wishes to make Wudhu', it is not necessary to perform Istinja' or Istijmar when one hasn't actually relieved oneself. Purity of water being used, and its being lawful
: It is not permissible to use impure water, water that has been wrongfully usurped, or water that has been stolen. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said: Whosoever introduces into this matter of ours that which does not belong to it, then it is rejected. Removing anything (a stain, for example) that prevents the water from reaching one's skin
: So that one's ablution is performed properly, as the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) advised his nation to perform it, one should remove any stain or particles, that prevent the water from directly reaching one's skin. That when one makes ablution, the time of prayer has arrived ...
: This is particularly for those who continually release impurities from their bodies, such as one who is afflicted with enuresis, a condition wherein one urinates uncontrollably. When a woman was afflicted not with her monthly bleeding, but with another kind of bleeding that was a result of sickness, the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) ordered her to make ablution for every prayer. (Recorded by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi).