Theme of Juz Ten – Politics and Warfare
The theme of the tenth Juz is perhaps among the clearest in the Qur’an. This Juz comprises of two Surahs with related themes, Surah Al-Anfaal and Surah Tawba
. Both of these Surahs revolve around Jihad and politics, but there is a slight difference in their themes.
Surah Al-Anfaal was revealed early in Madinan history just after the Battle of Badr, while Surah At-Tawba was revealed in stages around the time of the Battle of Tabook which took place many years later. Because of the different stages in which they were revealed, the content is slightly different.
Surah Al-Anfaal deals with the first major victory for the Muslims in the Battlefield which turned the tide of history in their favour. It is interesting that this Surah doesn’t praise the Muslims for their victory but reminds them constantly to fear Allah and to realize victory is only from Allah.
The message is for all of us, that any success we have is from Allah, and we should never allow it to affect our egos. Victory and success in every area of our lives is directly related to our Taqwa, sincerity and connection with Allah. This is why this Surah revolving around Jihad begins with a reminder about Taqwa, Tawakul, Salah and charity as these are necessary for the victory of the Ummah.
The theme of Surah Tawba is slightly different in that it was revealed at a time when the Muslims had become a major political entity and were facing both internal and external threats. Many verses in this Surah discuss the hypocrites and their qualities as hypocrites are a major stumbling block in the success of the Muslims at any point in time. A good description of the hypocrites is given as follows: “The hypocritical men and women are with each other, they call to what is evil, forbid what is righteous and close their hands (to charity).” (9:67)
Even today, we find Muslims who stop other Muslims from obeying Allah and try to force them into sin. We ask Allah to protect us from hypocrisy.
Allah then describes the believers as opposite to the hypocrites: “The believing men and women are allies of each other, they call to that which is good, prohibit what is evil, establish the Salah, discharge the Zakah and they obey Allah and His messenger…” (9:71)
This Surah contains many discussions revolving around the political issues of that time including the Quraysh breaking their treaty, the building of the harmful Masjid by the hypocrites, the plotting of the hypocrites, those who did not join the battle of Tabook and their fate; and discussions about the people of the Book.
The Surah also contains a strong warning against materialism, as it is materialism that weakens the Ummah and causes it to lose power, which is the situation we find ourselves in today. Reflect on this verse: “Say; If your fathers, your children, your siblings, your spouses, your families, your wealth that you have accumulated, your business that you fear making a loss in, and your homes that you find happiness in, (if any of these) are more beloved to you than Allah, his messenger and striving in His way, then wait until Allah brings about His decision, and Allah does not guide a rebellious people.” (9:24)
Source: Themes of the Qur'an by Abu Muawiyah Ismail Kamdar