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 Eat not up your property among yourselves... (Surah An-Nisa' 4: 29-31)

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PostSubject: Eat not up your property among yourselves... (Surah An-Nisa' 4: 29-31)   Mon Jan 09, 2017 2:13 pm



Eat not up your property among yourselves...

(Surah An-Nisa' 4: 29-31)




And whoever commits that through aggression and injustice, We shall cast him into the Fire, and that is easy for Allah.

If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do, We shall remit from you your (small) sins, and admit you to a Noble Entrance (i.e. Paradise). (Surah An-Nisa' 4: 30-31)

Prohibiting Unlawfully Earned Money


Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, prohibits His believing servants from illegally acquiring each other's property using various dishonest methods such as Riba, gambling and other wicked methods that appear to be legal, but Allah knows that, in reality, those involved seek to deal in interest. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn `Abbas (Radhi Allahu Anhu) commented on a man who buys a garment, saying that if he likes it he will keep it, or he will return it along with an extra Dirham, "This is what Allah meant, when He said,

Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas (Radhi Allahu Anhu) said, "When Allah sent down,

O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly some Muslims said, `Allah has forbidden us from eating up each other's property unjustly, and food is our best property. Therefore, none among us is allowed to eat from anyone else's food.' After that Allah sent down,

There is no restriction on the blind (until the end of the Ayah). [Surah An-Nur 24].''

Qatadah said similarly. Allah's statement,

except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent means, do not revert to illegal ways and means to acquire money. However, there is no harm in commercial transactions that transpire between the buyer and the seller with mutual consent, so that money is legally earned from these transactions. Mujahid said that,

except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent means, "By selling and buying, or giving someone a gift.'' Ibn Jarir recorded this statement.

The Option to Buy or Sell Before Parting, is Part of `Mutual Consent' in Trading

Mutual agreement in various transactions is attained when both parties have the right to uphold or dissolve the agreement before they part. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said,

The seller and the buyer retain the (right to change their mind) as long as they have not parted.  

Al-Bukhari's wording for this Hadith reads,

When two men conduct a transaction, they retain their (right to change their mind) as long as they have not parted.

Forbidding Murder and Suicide


Allah said,

And do not kill yourselves by committing Allah's prohibitions, falling into sin and eating up each other's property unjustly,

Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you  in what He commanded you and prohibited you from. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Amr bin Al-`As (Radhi Allahu Anhu) said that when the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) sent him for the battle of Dhat As-Salasil, "I had a wet dream during a very cold night and feared that if I bathed, I would die. So I performed Tayammum (with pure earth) and led my company in the Dawn prayer. When I went back to the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam), I mentioned what had happened to me and he said,

O `Amr! Have you led your people in prayer while you were in a state of sexual impurity

I said, 'O Messenger of Allah! I had a wet dream on a very cold night and feared that if I bathed I would perish, and I remembered Allah's statement,

And do not kill yourselves. Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you. So I performed Tayammum and prayed.' The Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) smiled and did not say anything.'' This is the narration reported by Abu Dawud. Ibn Marduwyah mentioned this honorable Ayah and then reported that Abu Hurayrah (Radhi Allahu Anhu) said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said,

Whoever kills himself with an iron tool, then his tool will be in his hand and he will keep stabbing himself with it in the Fire of Jahannam, forever and ever. Whoever kills himself with poison, then his poison will be in his hand and he will keep taking it in the Fire of Jahannam forever and ever. Whoever kills himself by throwing himself from a mountain, will keep falling in the Fire of Jahannam forever and ever.   This Hadith was also collected in the Two Sahihs.

Abu Qilabah said that Thabit bin Ad-Dahhak said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said,

Whoever kills himself with an instrument, will be punished with it on the Day of Resurrection.   This Hadith was collected by the Group. This is why Allah said,

And whoever commits that through aggression and injustice,  meaning, whoever commits what Allah has forbidden for him transgression and injustice - while knowing that it is forbidden for him, yet he still dares to commit it,

We shall cast him into the Fire, this Ayah carries a stern warning and a truthful promise. Therefore, every sane person should beware of it, those who hear the speech with full comprehension.

Minor Sins Will be Pardoned if One Refrains from Major Sins

Allah said,

If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do, We shall remit from you your (small) sins, meaning, if you avoid the major evil deeds that you were prohibited We will forgive you the minor evil deeds and will admit you into Paradise. This is why Allah said,
and admit you to a Noble Entrance (i.e. Paradise.)  There are several Hadiths on the subject of this honorable Ayah. Imam Ahmad recorded that Salman Al-Farisi (Radhi Allahu Anhu) said, "The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said to me,

`Do you know what the day of Al-Jumu’ah is' I said, `It is the day during which Allah brought together the creation of your father (Adam).' He (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said,

I know what the day of Jumu`ah is. Anyone who takes a bath and cleans himself as much as he can and then proceeds for the Friday prayer and remains quiet until the Imam finishes the prayer, all his sins in between the present and the next Friday will be forgiven, as long as major sins were avoided.'' Al-Bukhari recorded similar wording from Salman Al-Farisi (Radhi Allahu Anhu)

The Seven Destructive Sins

What are the Seven Destructive Sins? In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said,

Avoid the seven great destructive sins.

The people inquired, 'O Allah's Messenger! What are they' He (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said,

To join others in worship along with Allah, to kill the life which Allah has forbidden except for a just cause, magic, to consume Riba, to consume an orphan's wealth, to turn away from the enemy and flee from the battlefield when the battle begins, and to accuse chaste women, who never even think of anything that would tarnish their chastity and are good believers.

Another Hadith that mentions False Witness

Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, "The Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) mentioned the major sins, or was asked about the major sins. He (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said,

Associating others with Allah in worship, killing the life, and being undutiful to the parents. He (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) then said,

Should I tell you about the biggest of the major sins the false statement - or the false testimony. '' Shu`bah - one of the narrators of the Hadith - said, "Most likely, in my opinion, he said, `False testimony.''' The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith from Shu`bah from Anas.

Another Hadith



In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that `Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakrah said that his father said, "The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said,
Should I inform you about the greatest of the great sins?

We said, `Yes, O Allah's Messenger!' He (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said,

To join others in worship with Allah and to be undutiful to one's parents.

He was reclining, then he (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) sat up and said;

And I warn you against false testimony and false speech, and he continued repeating it until we wished that he would stop.''


Another Hadith that mentions killing the Offspring

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud (Radhi Allahu Anhu)  said, "I asked, `O Allah's Messenger! What is the greatest sin? [(in one narration) the biggest sin]' He (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said,

To make a rival for Allah while He Alone created you.

I said, “Then.”  He (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam)  said,

To kill your offspring for fear that he might share your food with you.

I said, `Then' He (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said,

To commit adultery with your neighbor's wife. He (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) then recited,

And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah, until, Except those who repent.''  (Surah Al-Furqan 25: 68-70)


Another Hadith from `Abdullah bin `Amr

Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr (Radhi Allahu Anhu) said that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said,

The greatest sins are: To join others in worship with Allah, to be undutiful to one's parents - or to take a life Shu`bah was uncertain of which one - (and the false oath). Recorded by Al-Bukhari, At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasai.


Another Hadith by `Abdullah bin `Amr about Causing one's Parents to be Cursed

Abdullah bin `Amr (Radhi Allahu Anhu) said that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said,

Among the worst of the major sins is for a man to curse his own parents.

They said, "How can one curse his own parents'' He (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said,

One curses another man's father, and that man curses his father in retaliation, or he curses someone's mother and that man curses his mother.  This is the wording of Muslim. At-Tirmidhi said, "Sahih.'' It is recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said,

Cursing a Muslim is a sin and fighting him is Kufr.


Source: Tafsir ibn Kathir (Abridged)
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