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 Tafsir Aayatil Kursi

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PostSubject: Tafsir Aayatil Kursi    Tafsir Aayatil Kursi  EmptyMon Dec 27, 2010 1:44 pm

Tafsir Aayatil Kursi Dr Saleh As Saleh Rahimahullaah
by Muhammad ibn Sâlih al-'Uthaymîn

Translated by Saalih As-Saalih


All Praise is due to Allah. We praise Him, and seek His help and forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allah, Most High, from the evils of our own selves and from our wicked deeds. Whomever Allah guides cannot be misguided, and whomever He leads astray cannot be guided. I testify that there is no true God worthy of being worshipped except Allah, alone, without partner or associate. I further testify that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. [1] May Allah’s salah and salaam also be granted to the Prophet’s pure family and to all of his noble companions.

Know, O Muslims, may Allah bestow upon us from His Mercy, that knowledge is the basis for the understanding and application of Islamic principles and laws. This is in accordance with the sayings of Allah, the Exalted:


So know [O! Muhammad] that la ilaaha illaAllah [none has the right to be worshipped but Allah]. [Qur’an, Surah Muhammad (47:19)].


In a related context, the Prophet affirmed that:

" He upon whom Allah intends goodness, He confers upon him a true understanding and keen insight into the din," and [in the narration by Imam Al-Bukhari], he said: " Truly knowledge is attained by learning."[4]

Imam Al-Bukhari commented: “So Allah stated that one should acquire knowledge first, and scholars are the inheritors of the Prophets (i.e. they inherit knowledge).” He added: “It is essential to know a thing first before saying or acting upon it.” [5]

Imam ibnul Qayyim said:


“The salaf did not generalize the name “fiqh” except on the knowledge which is associated with action.” He further added: “al-’ilm Imamul-'amal (Knowledge is the Imam of actions) and its leader, and al-’amal is adherent to knowledge and is led by it. Every action which is not led by knowledge is of no benefit for the one who initiates it. On the contrary, it inflicts harm upon him, just as some of the salaf said “Whoever worships Allah without knowledge, the mischief he causes is more than the goodness he may bring about.” He also stressed that: “Deeds vary with respect to their acceptance or rejection respectively depending upon their adherence or opposition to knowledge. Action which is in accordance with ‘ilm is an approved thing, and what opposes al-’ilm is repudiated. Knowledge, therefore, is the measure and is the test.

Allah said:
[Blessed be Allah] Who has created death that He may test you as to which of you is best in deeds, and He is al-’Aziz [Who subdues everything by His Might; the Mighty in His Revenge; the Unapproachable, none will prevail against Him; none is like unto Him], al-Ghafur [The One Who is Oft-Forgiving]. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Mulk (67:2)].


Al-Fudail bin ‘Iyad explained that, “The best of deeds are those which are done with sincerity [seeking Allah’s Face] and are upright.” They said, “What is considered sincere and right of the deeds?” He replied, “Deeds which are sincere but not correct are not accepted, and if they are correct but not sincere then they are also not accepted, until they are sincere and right. In order to be sincere, they must be done for Allah alone, and for them to be correct, they must comply with the [authentic] sunnah. Indeed Allah, Most High, says:


Whoever hopes for the meeting of his Rabb let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Rabb [Allah]. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Kahf (18:110)].


The doer will not be able to act in a way which comprises both qualities (sincerity and rightness) except by the way of knowledge. For if he does not know what the Messenger brought, he will not be able to follow him in the straight way. On the other hand, if he does not know of the One Who deserves to worshipped alone [Allah], he will be unable to seek Him solely.”[6]

In the absolute sense, what is meant by al-’ilm (knowledge) is the Islamic knowledge, based upon kitaabullah [the Book of Allah, the Qur’an], and the authentic sunnah in accordance with the understanding and methodology (manhaj) of as-salaf as-salih Shaykh ‘Abdul ‘Aziz bin Baz (hafithahullah: May Allah preserve him) explained: “When generalized, al-’ilm, pertains to the intended knowledge in the Book of Allah and the sunnah of His Messenger. It is knowledge of Allah, His Names and Attributes, knowledge of His rights over His creation, and what He (subhanahu wata’ala: Far is He removed from every imperfection, the Most High) has prescribed for them. And it is the detailed knowledge of the path that leads to Allah; knowledge of the purpose of our creation, and the final outcome, in the Hereafter, which the ‘ibad [7] will ultimately wind up in...It is of the duty of talib al-’ilm (the student seeking knowledge) to understand and study the din, to learn and reflect upon what Allah has prescribed, to know the authentic salafi ‘aqeedah which the Prophet was upon, his companions, and their follower in righteousness...” [8]

The greatest, most excellent “and most honorable knowledge is that of Allah, Most High, His Names, Attributes, and Actions, the knowledge of His din and of His Messenger with love and magnification, being pleased with it all.” [9]

The ranks of people with respect to this knowledge varies to a great extent. “Some people know of Allah by virtue of His Generosity, Bounties, and Favors, others know of Him through His Forgiveness, Clemency, and Pardoning, others through His Knowledge and Wisdom, others recognize Him by His Might and Majesty, others by His Mercy, Goodness, Kindness, and Courtesy, others by His Subduing and Sovereignty, and others by the fact that He answers their supplications, and fulfills their needs, and relieves their grief.

The one who is most comprehensive in his knowledge of Allah, knows of Him by means of His own Words. He knows a Rabb to whom belongs the Most Majestic and Perfect Attributes. Far is He removed from having anything comparable to Him or any equal; free from all kinds of defects and imperfections; qualified with every beautiful Name and every perfect Attribute; Doer of what He intends (wills); Above everything [istawa (ascended) upon the ‘arsh above the seven heavens] and with everything [He encompasses everything with His Knowledge, Ability, Authority, and so forth from the meanings of His rububiyyah, while He is the Most High, above everything]; the One who is Able to do everything; the One Who manages the affairs of everything. He commands and forbids. He speaks the legislative (diniyyah) [10]and universal (kawniyyah) [11]words. He is Greater than everything, and He is the Most Beautiful. the Most Merciful, the All-Able, the All-Wise.

Allah, Most High, sent down the Qur’an in order to inform His ‘ibad about Himself, so that they know of Him, of the way that leads to Him, and of the status of travellers to Him after their arrival.” [12]

One of the great suwar [plural of surah (chapter)] of the Qur’an that was revealed to Prophet Muhammad is Surah al-baqarah (The second surah of the Qur’an). In it is an ayah (verse) in which Allah, the Exalted, Speaks about Himself and His Attributes. This ayah is ayatul-kursi, which is highly distinguished because:

1.The Prophet described as the greatest ayah in the Qur’an.

2.In it the Most Great Name of Allah (ismullahi al-’atham) is mentioned.

3.It protects from the shayatin (sing. shaytan).[13]

4.The believer who recites it following an obligatory salah is under the Care and Protection of Allah until the commencement of the next prayer. [14]

5.“The one who recites it after each of the obligatory prayers, then death will be the only thing [i.e. barrier] preventing him from entering al-Jannah.” [15]

Shaykh-ul-Islam ibn Taymiyah said: “There is no single ayah in the Qur’an which includes that which is comprised in ayatul-kursi.” [16]
Because of the great importance of this ayah, I have decided, after making istikharah [17] to introduce the english-speaking Muslim communities to the salaf’s tasfir of the Words of Allah in this noble ayah. In this regard, I found that an excellent summarized explanation of its meaning by Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Uthaymin (may Allah protect Him) was published by Dar ibnul-Jawzi in Dammam, KSA. I chose it because of the many major points of benefit it contains. Many other related beneficial points from the Shaykh’s discussions in other books or treatises [18] and from other discussions by the great salafi scholars are introduced.

I ask Allah, Most High, to make this effort sincerely for His Majestic Face, and that He grant the best reward to its author and the salafi scholars, and that He grants us a share of the reward for it, and that He makes it a benefit for all Muslims.

The slave of Allah

Saleh As-Saleh
P.O. Box 3228
‘Unayzah, 81888
KSA




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Footnotes
[1] (SallAllahu ‘alayhi wasallam): The salah and salaam of Allah be upon His Prophet Muhammad. The salah of Allah upon Prophet Muhammad is His Praise of the Prophet before the angels who are close to (but below) Allah, the Most High, who istawa (ascended) upon His ‘arsh (Throne), which is above the seven heavens, in a manner that suits His Majesty. The angels also praise the Prophet (r). The salaam is Allah’s safeguarding of the Prophet (r) from deficiencies and any kind of evil, and the protection of the Message with which he was etrusted. When the Muslim says r (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wasallam), he invokes Allah to grant His Praise and Security to Prophet Muhammad and the protection of the Message of Islam which was revealed to him (r). [See Ibnul Qayyim’s Jala’ul Afham fee Fadlis-Salati-wa-Salam ‘ala Muhammadin Khairil Anam, [Damascus, Syria: Dar ibn Kathir, and Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia: Dar at-Turath, 1408/1988], p. 128.

[4]Reported by Al-Bukhari, Sahih Al-Bukhari (Arabic/English), vol. 2, p. 59, and by Muslim in his Sahih (English Translation), vol. 2, no. 2258.

[5]See Sahih Al-Bukhari (Arabic/English), vol. 2, chapter 11, p. 59.

[6]Imam Ibnul Qayyim in his book Muftah Darus Sa’adah [al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia: Dar Ibn ‘Affan (1st.ed; checked by Shaykh ‘Ali Hasan ‘Abdul Hamid al-Halabi al-Athari), 1416/1966], vol. 1, pp. 301-303.

[7]’Ibad (sing.‘abd, lit. “slave”). When generalized, ‘ibad includes the believers and none-believers, the righteous and the wicked. This is the universal kind of ‘ubudiyyah (slavery) pertaining to the rububiyyah of Allah (He is the Rabb of all that exists). Accordingly, it is the submission to the what Allah has commanded and decreed in the creation, and this kind of submission is common to all creation, none is able to escape it. Allah تعالى (the Most High) said:
{إن كل من في السماوات والأرض إلا آتي الرحمن عبدا } [Maryam:93]
There is none in the heavens and the earth will come to ar-Rahman [The One Whose Mercy encompasses everything (Allah)] on the Day of Resurrection as submissive slaves. [Qur’an, Surah Maryam (19:93)].p> The second kind of ‘ubudiyyah comprises the general obedience to Allah. It is specific to those who comply to the shari’ah of Allah. He I says:
{وعباد الرحمن الذين يمشون على الأرض هونا}
And the believing slaves of ar-Rahman are those who walk on the earth in humility and sedateness. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Furqan (25:63)].
The ‘ubudiyyah of the Messengers (‘alayhimu as-salam: May Allah protect them from all kinds of evil) is the very special slavery to Allah, Most High. None can compete with the Messengers’ degree of ‘ubudiyyah to Allah.



[8]Bin Baaz, Shaykh ‘Abdul ‘Aziz Al-’ilm Wa Akhlaqu Ahlihi [Riyaadh, Saudi Arabia: a special print compiled by Dr. Muhammad S. ash-Way’ir, 2d, ed. 1409/1988], pp. 302, 315. This important treatise was rendered into English by Br. ‘Ahmar ibn Muhammad Iqbal and entitled Knowledge [Birmingham, U.K.: Al-Hidayah Publishing & Distribution 1995].

[9]Ibnul Qayyim. See Ftn.6, vol. 1, pp. 291-292.

[10]Diniyyah: Pertrains to Allah’s shari’ah (Commands and Prohibitions of the Islamic Code). It is also known as al-iraadah as-shar’iyyah (Allah’s legislative Will).
[11]Kawniyyah: Relates to Allah’s Will in His creation. Everything He Wills is certain to pass, and everything He Wills not to pass, will never occur. None is able to escape Allah’s universal decree.

[12]Imam ibnul Qayyim in his book Al-Fawaa’id [Dammam, Saudi Arabia: Dar ibnul Jawzi (checked and reformatted by Shaykh ‘Ali Hasan ‘Abdul Hamid), 1417/1996], p. 396.

[13]As in the authentic and famous hadeeth reporting the encounter of Abu Hurayrah t with the one of the shayatin. See page 16.

[14]It is reported by at-Tabarani that the Prophet (r) said: “The one who recites ayatul kursi after the conclusion of an obligatory prayer, he is under the Care of Allah تعالى until the next prayer commences.” See at-Tabarani ’s At-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (2:435). Al-Hafith Al-Munthiri said, “At-Tabarani reported it with a good chain of narration.” Al-Haythami stated the same conclusion (Majma’ Az-Zawa’id, 10:109).

[15]This hadeeth is reported by At-Tabarani , ibn as-Sunni, ibn Hibban, and others. Ibn Hibban graded it as sahih in his book As-Salat. Al-Haythami said: “At-Tabarani reported it in Al-KabIr and Al-Awsat with different narrations, one of them is good.” Al-Hafith ibn Hajar said,“Its isnad is sahih ...and ibnul Jawzi was inattentive when he reported it in his Mawdu’at (fabricated collection of ahadith).” Shaykh al-Albani authenticated it in As-Silsilah As-Sahihah (vol.2, no.972) and said: “Ibn Khathir declared it as sahih in his tafsir (exegesis).” He noted that Shaykh-ul-Islam ibn Taymiyah ’s classification of this hadeeth as weak, as in his Fatawa (22:508), “Appears to be made at the stage when he was beginning to seek knowledge. In fact, his student Imam ibnul Qayyim related that he (ibn Taymiyah ) was reported to have said, “I never relinquished [to recite] it after each [obligatory] salat.” After detailing the various reports regarding this hadeeth, ibnul Qayyim commented, “It has its basis and it is not mawdu’ (fabricated).” [See ibnul Qayyim’s Zadul Ma’ad (Beirut, Lebanon: Mu’assasatur-Risalah (Checked by Shu’ayeb and ‘Abdul Qadir al-Arna’ut), 2d, ed. 1418/1997)], pp. 293-294.

[16]Majmui’ Al-Fatawa, vol. 17, p. 130.

[17]Istikharah : The special prayer composed of two rak’ahs followed by a specific du’a (supplication) seeking Allah’s Guidance. The English meaning of this Prophetic du’a is: "O my ilah (Allah)! I ask your Guidance due to Your Knowledge, and appeal to You to help me [give me power] due to Your Ability, and ask You from Your Great Favor, for You are Able and I am not. You know and I do not know, and You know all hidden matters. O Allah! If You know that this matter [and you name it] is good for me in my din [Islam], my livelihood, the aftermath of my matter [also said: for my life in the Hereafter], its short term, or its long term, then decree it for me, make it easy for me, and bestow blessing for me in it; and if You know that this matter [and you name it] is bad for me in my din, my livelihood, the aftermath of my matter, its short term, and its long term, then keep it away for me, and turn me away from it, and decree for me the good where ever it is, and then content me with it." A detailed reference on this great act of worship is found in The Three Abandoned Prayers by ‘Adnan Aal ‘Ar’ur: It may me obtained from The Call to Islam Da’wah Center at 318 Hoe Street, Walthamstow, London, E17 9PX, UK.

[18]It is of paramount importance that the seekers of knowledge should try their best to review the scholarly works of the trusted salafi ‘ulma’. This helps to clarify what is generalized or not entirely clear in some of their statements. In addition it brings out points of benefit which otherwise may be missed. Unlike many so-called “scholars” whose books are filled with mystic terminology whose explanation, in the best cases, may contain truth and falsehood, the ‘ulama’ who follow the path of as-salaf as-salih do not intend confusion for the ummah. However, they are human and may say and (or) write certain things which may need clarification or some detail. Often such clarifications and (or) details are present in other parts of their works and therefore should not be overlooked. It is also relevant that those working on translating the works of the salafi scholars give this issue the consideration it deserves. And Allah Knows best.

Part 1 : The Words of Allah in Ayatul Kursi and the Translation of Their Meanings
Part 2 : Tafsir Ayatul Kursi Prelude
Part 3 : The Explanation of Ayatul Kursi
Part 4 : Points of Benefit - Deduced from Ayatul Kursi
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