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 Fiqh Al Adhkaar (Jurisprudence of the Remembrance of Allah ta'aala)

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Fiqh Al Adhkaar (Jurisprudence of the Remembrance of Allah ta'aala) 11ert10

Fiqh Al Adhkaar

Jurisprudence of the Remembrance of Allah سبحانه و تعالى


Praise be to Allah, the Exalted, we praise Him and seek His help and forgiveness. We seek refuge with Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) from the evil of our souls and from our evil deeds. Whomever Allah guides, none can lead astray, and whomever Allah leaves astray, none can guide. I bear witness that there is no good except Allah, with no partner or associate, and I bear witness that Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم), is His slave and Messenger.

In the following thread, we will, inshaAllah, discuss the jurisprudence of dhikr (remembrance of Allah سبحانه و تعالى). Adhkaar is the plural form of dhikr. InshaAllah, we will talk about topics like the different types of dhikr, importance and benefits of dhikr, etiquettes of making dhikr, the best form of dhikr, and more.

What will be posted here is based on a course taught by Shaykh Waleed Basyouni (may Allah preserve him).

May Allah make this of benefit to all and may He accept it from us.

Introduction:
Why learn about Fiqh Al-Adhkaar (Dhikr and its Rulings)?

• The student of knowledge needs dhikr and du'aa like they need food and water so that they become of the dhakireen ذاكرين (those who remember Allah often)

• We need to know and memorize the du'aa and dhikr of the Quran and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم). We concern ourselves more with the du'aa and dhikr of other people.

• Ibn Al Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) was surprised at the strength of his teacher, Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allah have mercy on him), in acquiring knowledge. When he asked him about the secret to this, Ibn Taymiyyah answered that it was the morning and evening adhkaar. Dhikr was his breakfast that he could not function without.

• Seeking knowledge is all about knowing Allah and connecting people to Allah. How can one connect people to Allah if they are not connected?

• From Allah to mankind is the Quran, from mankind to Allah is dhikr.



Draft by courtesy of sister Ola, barakAllahu feeha based on a class by Shaykh Waleed Basyouni may Allah preserve him.


Last edited by Aisha on Tue Dec 21, 2010 12:09 pm; edited 1 time in total
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Linguistic and Technical Meaning of Dhikr
Linguistic Definition:


• Dhikr ذكر comes from dhakara ذَكَرَ
• It means to remember something and not forget.

• When one remembers something, it starts from the heart. Then they talk about it a lot

• It is used in the Arabic language when remembering honorable and valuable things. There is no one more honorable than Allah سبحانه و تعالى . The Book of Allah, being honorable, is called dhikr:
Allah سبحانه و تعالى says,

صٓ ۚ وَٱلْقُرْءَانِ ذِى ٱلذِّكْرِ

"Sad. By the Qur'an containing reminder.." (Sad:1)
• The word dhikr is used in the Quran with multiple meanings, including; remembering and contemplating about Allah, good deeds, tawheed, reminder, five prayers, the Quran.


Technical Definition:

• To remember Allah سبحانه و تعالى by thinking about Him or mentioning His Names and Attributes.

• Dhikr cannot involve the tongue alone without the heart's presence. Repeating words without it coming from the heart is not dhikr.
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salaam

Fiqh Al Adhkaar (Jurisprudence of the Remembrance of Allah ta'aala) 11ert10



Three Types of Dhikr that one can make to remember Allah:


First Type: Remembering Allah, His Names and Attributes. This comes about in two ways:

1. Praising Allah سبحانه و تعالى Example: Saying SubhanaAllah or Alhamdulilah.

2. Telling others about Allah's Names and Attributes. Example: Teaching people aqeedah (creed) or the meanings of Allah's Names.

Second Type: Remembering Allah's Laws, what He سبحانه و تعالى loves and what He hates. This also comes about in two ways:

1. Telling/teaching others about the laws of Allah. Allah سبحانه و تعالى tells us to ask the people of dhikr,


فَسْـَٔلُوٓا۟ أَهْلَ ٱلذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
"...so ask the people of the message if you do not know." (Al-Anbiyah 21:7)


Moreover, gatherings where people study the lawful (halaal) and prohibited (haraam) in Islam are called مجالس الذكر majaalis ad-dhikr.

2. To remember the Laws of Allah when needed. Example: To remember the prayer times.

Third Type: Remembering Allah at times of calamity and remembering Allah's blessings ذكر الله عند أقداره
This type is related to qadr (divine decree) and it leads one to be patient.

* These three types of dhikr directs the Believer to remember Allah at ALL times.

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salaam

Fiqh Al Adhkaar (Jurisprudence of the Remembrance of Allah ta'aala) 11ert10



Categories of Verbal Dhikr and their Guidelines:

There are two categories of verbal dhikr that a Muslim may make through out the day. They are:

1. Dhikr reported in the Quran and Sunnah: This category is further divided into 2 subcategories:

a. Restricted مقيض by time, location, situation, number, etc.
Examples:
· Morning and evening adhkaar
· To say subhanaAllah, Alhamdulilah, and Allahu akbar 33 times after each prayer
· Supplication to be said when it rains
· What to say on the Day of Arafah
These are just a few examples, there are many found in the Quran and Sunnah

b. Unrestricted مطلق: This type of dhikr is also found in the Quran and Sunnah but is not restricted by time, location, number and so on. Examples include istighfaar (seeking Allah's forgiveness) and reciting Quran.


2. Dhikr that the Muslim initiates from themselves. For example, when one makes their own supplication.

* Each of these two categories contain guidelines that must be followed.

Guidelines for narrated (Prophetic) Adhkaar:

1. The dhikr must be established by clear evidence from the Quran and Sunnah.

2. The dhikr should be followed in the manner taught to us by the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم . Whatever has been restricted by time, location, number, etc., should be kept the way it is. For example, if a dhikr is to be done at a certain time, then it should be done at that time.

3. Keep the wording the exact same way it has been narrated. (Example: the call to prayer, adhaan).

4. Adhere to the general etiquette of du'aa (supplication).

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Fiqh Al Adhkaar (Jurisprudence of the Remembrance of Allah ta'aala) 11ert10



Guidelines for non-narrated Adhkaar (Initiated by the Muslim):


Before we outline these guidelines, keep in mind the following points:

· The Shariah (Islamic Law) is complete. The Adhkaar have clearly been pointed out to us in the Quran and Sunnah.

· One will never be able to come up with better than what Allah سبحانه و تعالى has ordained. Who knows better you or Allah?

· The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم has himself admitted that he cannot praise Allah سبحانه و تعالى in a better way than Allah has praised himself, when he صلى الله عليه و سلم said in one of his supplications:

لا أُحْصِي ثَنَاءً عَلَيْكَ أَنْتَ كَمَا أَثْنَيْتَ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ
"I cannot praise You enough; You are as You have praised Yourself."


· History tells that those who made up their own dhikr usually ended up making their own way (tareeqah) and they left what Allah and His Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم taught us.

Back to the Guidelines:

1. Dhikr should be only for Allah, as He سبحانه و تعالى states in the Quran:


وَمَآ أُمِرُوٓا۟ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ ٱلدِّينَ
"And they were not commanded except to worship Allah , [being] sincere to Him in religion..."
(Al-Bayyinah 98:5)

2. It should not be restricted by time, location, number, and so on. Example: Some people came up with a specific du'aa (supplication) to say when something is lost; there is no such du'aa found in the Quran or Sunnah.

3. This dhikr should indicate good meaning. It should not entail any disrespect for Allah سبحانه و تعالى.

4. One cannot make up their own names of Allah سبحانه و تعالى.

5. Dhikr cannot be made in any strange, unknown language.

6. Dhikr must be perfect and not entail any negative connotation.

7. It should not contain any transgression in the du'aa.

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Fiqh Al Adhkaar (Jurisprudence of the Remembrance of Allah ta'aala) 11ert10


The Importance of Making Dhikr in the Life of a Muslim


• Allah سبحانه و تعالى tells us in the following verse to not just remember Him, but to remember Him a lot,


يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ٱذْكُرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ ذِكْرًۭا كَثِيرًۭا
"O you who have believed, remember Allah with much remembrance."
(Al-Ahzab 33:41)

• Allah سبحانه و تعالى says,


ٱلَّذِينَ يَذْكُرُونَ ٱللَّهَ قِيَـٰمًۭا وَقُعُودًۭا وَعَلَىٰ جُنُوبِهِمْ وَيَتَفَكَّرُونَ فِى خَلْقِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ رَبَّنَا مَا خَلَقْتَ هَـٰذَا بَـٰطِلًۭا سُبْحَـٰنَكَ فَقِنَا عَذَابَ ٱلنَّارِ
"Who remember Allah while standing or sitting or [lying] on their sides and give thought to the creation of the heavens and the earth, [saying], "Our Lord, You did not create this aimlessly; exalted are You [above such a thing]; then protect us from the punishment of the Fire. "
(Aal Imran 3:191)

• In Hajj, Allah سبحانه و تعالى reminds us,


فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُم مَّنَـٰسِكَكُمْ فَٱذْكُرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ كَذِكْرِكُمْ ءَابَآءَكُمْ أَوْ أَشَدَّ ذِكْرًۭ
"And when you have completed your rites, remember Allah like your [previous] remembrance of your fathers or with [much] greater remembrance."
(Al-Baqarah 2:200)

• Allah سبحانه و تعالى says,


وَٱلذَّ‌ٰكِرِينَ ٱللَّهَ كَثِيرًۭا وَٱلذَّ‌ٰكِرَ‌ٰتِ أَعَدَّ ٱللَّهُ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةًۭ وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًۭا
"...and the men who remember Allah often and the women who do so - for them Allah has prepared forgiveness and a great reward."
(Al-Ahzab 33:35)

• The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said:

“Shall I not tell you of the best of your deeds and that which is most pure in the sight of your Lord, that which raises you more in status and is better for you than giving gold and silver (in charity), and better than your meeting your enemy and striking their necks and they strike your necks?’ They said, ‘Yes, O Messenger of Allah.’ He said, ‘Remembering Allah (dhikr).’” (Abu Dawood)

• The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said:

'The mufridoon have gone ahead.’ They said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, who are the mufridoon?’ He said, ‘Those men and women who remember Allah much.’ (Muslim)

• The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said:

"The house in which remembrance of Allah is made and the house in which Allah is not remembered are like the living and the dead." (Muslim)

• Allah سبحانه و تعالى ordered us directly to make dhikr and forbade us from being of those who forget Allah;


وَلَا تَكُونُوا۟ كَٱلَّذِينَ نَسُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ فَأَنسَىٰهُمْ أَنفُسَهُمْ ۚ أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْفَـٰسِقُونَ
"And be not like those who forgot Allah , so He made them forget themselves. Those are the defiantly disobedient."
(Al-Hashr 59:19)

• Allah سبحانه و تعالى says,


وَٱذْكُرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ كَثِيرًۭا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
"...and remember Allah often that you may succeed."
(Al-Jumuah 62:10)

• Allah سبحانه و تعالى says,


يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ لَا تُلْهِكُمْ أَمْوَ‌ٰلُكُمْ وَلَآ أَوْلَـٰدُكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ ٱللَّهِ ۚ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ فَأُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْخَـٰسِرُونَ
"O you who have believed, let not your wealth and your children divert you from remembrance of Allah . And whoever does that - then those are the losers."
(Al-Munafiqoon 63:9)

• Allah سبحانه و تعالى says,


فَٱذْكُرُونِىٓ أَذْكُرْكُمْ وَٱشْكُرُوا۟ لِى وَلَا تَكْفُرُونِ
"So remember Me; I will remember you. And be grateful to Me and do not deny Me."
(Al-Baqarah 2:152)


• Allah سبحانه و تعالى reminds us that prayer does not only prevent one from immoral sins, but it leads to a higher objective and that is remembrance of Allah. He سبحانه و تعالى says,


إِنَّ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ تَنْهَىٰ عَنِ ٱلْفَحْشَآءِ وَٱلْمُنكَرِ ۗ وَلَذِكْرُ ٱللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ
"Indeed, prayer prohibits immorality and wrongdoing, and the remembrance of Allah is greater. And Allah knows that which you do."
(Al-Ankabut 29:45)

• Dhikr strengthens our eman (faith). Allah سبحانه و تعالى says,


ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَتَطْمَئِنُّ قُلُوبُهُم بِذِكْرِ ٱللَّهِ ۗ أَلَا بِذِكْرِ ٱللَّهِ تَطْمَئِنُّ ٱلْقُلُوبُ
"Those who have believed and whose hearts are assured by the remembrance of Allah . Unquestionably, by the remembrance of Allah hearts are assured." (Al-Ra'd 13:28)

• The Quran is dhikr. Allah سبحانه و تعالى says,


صٓ ۚ وَٱلْقُرْءَانِ ذِى ٱلذِّكْرِ
"Sad. By the Qur'an containing reminder.."
(Sad:1)

• `Abdullah bin Busr (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: One of the Companions said, "O Messenger of Allah. There are many injunctions of Islam for me. So tell me something to which I may hold fast.'' He said, "Keep your tongue wet with the remembrance of Allah.'' [At-Tirmidhi].

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What is better Dhikr or Du'aa?

Generally speaking, dhikr is much better than du'aa. Dhikr is at a higher level. However, at certain times one deed can be better than the other. For example, reciting Quran is the best of dhikr, yet in rukoo' we are prohibited from reciting Quran. At times of calamity or desperate need du'aa would be better.

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Benefits of being constant in making Dhikr:

1. Protection from the Shaitan

2. Dhikr for the heart is like water for the fish.

3. Making dhikr earns one the honor of Allah mentioning them twice. First, before one made dhikr because it is Allah who guided you to do so. Second, after making dhikr.

4. Dhikr is what protects one most from the Hellfire.

5. The easiest thing to do with an unbelievable reward.

6. Dhikr melts sins away.

7. Palm trees will be planted for you in Jannah. The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Whoever says ‘Subhaan Allaah il-‘Adheem wa bi hamdih (Glory and praise be to Allaah the Almighty),’ a palm tree will be planted for him in Paradise.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 3465; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi.

8. Light for the Believer in this world and in the Hereafter.

9. Allah and His angels send blessings (salaat) upon those who remember Allah. Allah سبحانه و تعالى says:

ـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ٱذْكُرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ ذِكْرًۭا كَثِيرًۭا ﴿41﴾ وَسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةًۭ وَأَصِيلًا ﴿42﴾ هُوَ ٱلَّذِى يُصَلِّى عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَلَـٰٓئِكَتُهُۥ لِيُخْرِجَكُم مِّنَ ٱلظُّلُمَـٰتِ إِلَى ٱلنُّورِ ۚ وَكَانَ بِٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَحِيمًۭا ﴿43


"O you who have believed, remember Allah with much remembrance. And exalt Him morning and afternoon. It is He who confers blessing upon you, and His angels [ask Him to do so] that He may bring you out from darknesses into the light. And ever is He, to the believers, Merciful." (Al-Ahzab 33: 41-43)

10. Protection from hypocrisy.

11. Healing.

12. Replaces many good deeds.

13. Any group of people who gather together and do not remember Allah will regret the gathering.

14. Helps protect one against backbiting and slander.

15. Gives physical strength to the body. In the hadeeth of ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib (may Allah be pleased with him), who said that Faatimah (may Allah be pleased with her) came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and asked him for a servant. He said, “Shall I not tell you of something that is better for you than that? When you go to sleep, say ‘Subhaan Allaah’ thirty-three times, ‘Al-hamdu Lillah’ thirty-three times, and ‘Allaahu akbar’ thirty four times.” (Bukhari)

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As-Salaamu alaikum




Some reasons why people don't regularly say the Adhkaar:



• Ignorance (in memorizing them, knowing them, being aware of the reward and the meaning).

• Laziness (saying subhaanaAllah wa bihamdih 100 times takes no more than 3 minutes, test it yourself).

• Lack of knowledge regarding the etiquette of dhikr (some people may think one needs to be in a certain position or state).

• Sins prevent one from making dhikr.

• Distraction.

• Friends can be a big obstacle.

• Shyness (in public areas).

• Delaying it (not designating a certain time).

The Sources of the Narrated Adhkaar:

1. Quran:

· The Quran itself is dhikr.
· Many supplications are found in the Quran (including those made by the Prophets).
· Some etiquettes of making dhikr are also found in the Quran, such as not being too loud.

2. Sunnah:

· In the Sunnah, there is detailed evidence on what to say, when to say, how many times and so on.
· It should be noted that some dhikr was not said by the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم but approved by him.

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Fiqh Al Adhkaar (Jurisprudence of the Remembrance of Allah ta'aala) 11ert10




Etiquette of Dhikr:

1. Dhikr is an act of worship, thus it must be:
a. Performed by a Muslim.
b. Sincerely for Allah
c. According to the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم

2. It is recommended that one be in a state of purity. It is permissible to make dhikr without wudhu because the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم made dhikr at all times.

3. Purify the mouth with siwaak (or by other means).

4. It is recommended to face the qiblah.

5. Making dhikr at special places, such as the masjid. Allah says,


يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ إِذَا نُودِىَ لِلصَّلَوٰةِ مِن يَوْمِ ٱلْجُمُعَةِ فَٱسْعَوْا۟ إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ ٱللَّهِ وَذَرُوا۟ ٱلْبَيْعَ ۚ ذَ‌ٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌۭ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
"O you who have believed, when [the adhan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu'ah [Friday], then proceed to the remembrance of Allah and leave trade. That is better for you, if you only knew."
(Al Jumuah 62:9)

6. Making dhikr at special times, such as Friday, last third of the night, Fajr time, etc.

7. To have khushoo' (calmness, serenity, tranquility, dignity and humility) while making dhikr.

8. Individually, isolated from the people.

9. In a low voice. Allah says,


وَٱذْكُر رَّبَّكَ فِى نَفْسِكَ تَضَرُّعًۭا وَخِيفَةًۭ وَدُونَ ٱلْجَهْرِ مِنَ ٱلْقَوْلِ بِٱلْغُدُوِّ وَٱلْءَاصَالِ وَلَا تَكُن مِّنَ ٱلْغَـٰفِلِينَ
"And remember your Lord within yourself in humility and in fear without being apparent in speech - in the mornings and the evenings. And do not be among the heedless." (Al 'Araaf 7:205)

10. To recite the supplication to be said at the end of a gathering.


سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك ، أشهد أن لا إله إلا أنت أستغفرك وأتوب إليك

"How perfect You are O Allaah, and I praise You. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except You. I seek Your forgiveness and turn to You in repentance."

Note: All the points mentioned above are recommended (not obligatory) except the first point.


Situations in which Dhikr is Prohibited

• In the bathroom. Sufyan Athawri described it as the place where one removes their clothes.

• During the Friday khutbah (sermon).

• When one is really sleep, as they might say what they don't understand. The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said:
“If anyone of you becomes drowsy whilst he is praying, let him sleep until he is refreshed, because if any one of you prays whilst he is drowsy he may not understand what he is saying and he may to pray for forgiveness but may insult himself by mistake instead.” (Bukhari and Muslim).

• During intercourse.


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Fiqh Al Adhkaar (Jurisprudence of the Remembrance of Allah ta'aala) 11ert10



Must Narrated Adhkaar be recited Verbatim?

Is it mandatory to recite the narrated adhkaar word for word as it was related or can they be recited according to the general meaning? In other words, may a Muslim add or subtract from these adhkaar?

There are two opinions:

First Opinion: Yes, it is mandatory to recite the narrated adhkaar verbatim.

Evidence:

1. When Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated the du'aa the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم taught the companions to before the tasleem in prayer he said, "he used to teach the Companions (radi Allaahu 'anhum) this the way he taught them Soorahs of the Qur'aan." (Muslim)

Also, in the hadeeth narrated by Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) about Istikhaarah prayer he said,
The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم used to teach his companions to make [i]istikhaarah in all matters, just as he used to teach them soorahs from the Qur’aan." (Bukhari)

2. The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “May Allah bless a man who hears a hadeeth from us and memorizes it so that he can convey it to others, for perhaps he is conveying it to one who will understand it better than him, and perhaps the one who conveys knowledge does not understand it himself.”
(Narrated and classed as hasan by al-Tirmidhi).

3. It was narrated by Bukhari that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم taught Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq a du’aa which he could recite during his Salah.
Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq (may Allah be pleased with him) said to the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم , “Teach me a du’aa’ that I can recite during my salaah.” He said: “Say: ‘Allaahumma inni zalamtu nafsi zulman katheeran wa laa yaghfir ul-dhunoob illa anta, faghfir li maghfiratan min ‘indaka warhamni, innaka anta al-Ghafoor al-Raheem (O Allah, indeed I have wronged myself greatly, and there is none who forgives sins besides You. So grant me forgiveness from You and have mercy on me, for you are the All-Forgiving, Most Merciful).’” (Bukhari)

4. Note the following hadeeth how the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم corrected Al Baraa when he said the supplication wrong:

It was narrated by Al-Bara 'bin 'Azib: The Prophet said to me, "Whenever you go to bed perform ablution like that for the prayer, lie or your right side and say, "Allahumma aslamtu wajhi ilaika, wa fauwadtu amri ilaika, wa alja'tu Zahri ilaika raghbatan wa rahbatan ilaika. La Malja' wa la manja minka illa ilaika. Allahumma amantu bikitabika-l-ladhi anzalta wa bina-biyika-l ladhi arsalta" (O Allah! I surrender to You and entrust all my affairs to You and depend upon You for Your Blessings both with hope and fear of You. There is no fleeing from You, and there is no place of protection and safety except with You O Allah! I believe in Your Book (the Qur'an) which You have revealed and in Your Prophet (Muhammad) whom You have sent). Then if you die on that very night, you will die with faith (i.e. or the religion of Islam). Let the aforesaid words be your last utterance (before sleep)." I repeated it before the Prophet and when I reached "Allahumma amantu bikitabika-l-ladhi anzalta (O Allah I believe in Your Book which You have revealed)." I said, "Wa-rasulika (and your Apostle)." The Prophet said, "No, (but say): 'Wanabiyika-l-ladhi arsalta (Your Prophet whom You have sent), instead." (Bukhari)

*Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
"The wording of adhkaar is to left as it is mentioned in the reports, and it has special characteristics and there is wisdom behind its format, so it is not open to analogy, so we must adhere to the wording in which they were narrated. This is the view favoured by al-Maaziri who said: we should stick to the wording that is narrated verbatim, and the reward may be dependent upon that wording." Fath al-Baari (11/112).

*Those who follow this opinion also said that changing the word may change the meaning.

Second Opinion:
*The Opinion of Shaykh al Islam Ibn Taimiyah:
- If the dhikr or du'aa is restricted to certain situations, then its wording should not be changed.
- If it is a general dhikr or du'aa then one can change the wording.
- His evidence was that not all ahadeeth were narrated in exactly the same wording. For example, the hadeeth mentioned above, "May Allah bless a man…." was narrated by many Companions of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم with different wordings.

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Fiqh Al Adhkaar (Jurisprudence of the Remembrance of Allah ta'aala) 11ert10




Changing from Feminine to Masculine


Can a Muslim female change the nouns/pronouns (which are usually masculine) that are mentioned in the narrated adhkaar to fir her own specific gender?

Yes, it's permissible to do so.

For example, in the narrated du'aa of sayyid al-istighfaar (the best form of seeking forgiveness), a female may change abduka (male slave) to amatuka (female slave):

“Allaahumma Anta Rabbee laa ilaah illa Anta, khalaqtani wa ana ‘abduka wa ana ‘ala ‘ahdika wa wad’ika maa asta’tu, a’oodhu bika min sharri ma sana’tu aboo’u laka bi ni’matika ‘alayya wa aboo’u laka bi dhanbi, faghfir li fa innahu laa yaghfir al-dhunoob illa anta

(O Allah, you are my Lord. None has the right to be worshipped but You. You created me and I am Your slave, and I am faithful to my covenant and my promise (to You) as much as I can. I seek refuge with You from all the evil I have done. I acknowledge before You all the blessings You have bestowed upon me, and I confess to You all my sins. So I entreat You to forgive my sins, for nobody can forgive sins except You.)."



Sticking to a specific number

Is it mandatory to stick to the specific number of repetitions that are mentioned in the narrated adhkaar or can somebody add repetitions?


Two opinions:

First:
Yes, it is permissible to add, just as a person can give more money than what is obligated on them when paying zakaah.

Second:
No, it is not permissible to add. Adding would be like adding rak'ahs to Salah. That would be disrespect to Shariah, in that one thinks they can know better than what has been prescribed by Allah and His Messenger.

To combine between both opinions:
If the dhikr is restricted to specific situation (like saying 33 times subhanaAllah, alhamdulilah, and Allahu akbar after prayer), then one should not add to what has been ordained. However, if the dhikr is not restricted to specific situations than it is permissible to add.

What should I do if I am not sure about the number of repetitions I have made in reciting a narrated adhkaar?

In that case, one should go by certainty (the lesser amount). For example, if they are not sure if they said subhanaAllah 28 or 33 times, then they should go by 28.

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Fiqh Al Adhkaar (Jurisprudence of the Remembrance of Allah ta'aala) 11ert10

Best Form of Dhikr

What is the best form of making dhikr?

The best form of dhikr is the Quran. Bukhari has a chapter entitled, "The Virtue of the Quran over any other speech." In this chapter is the following hadeeth;

Narrated Abu Musa: The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, "The example of a believer who recites the Qur'an and acts on it, like a citron which tastes nice and smells nice. And the example of a believer who does not recite the Qur'an but acts on it, is like a date which tastes good but has no smell. And the example of a hypocrite who recites the Qur'an is like a Raihana (sweet basil) which smells good but tastes bitter And the example of a hypocrite who does not recite the Quran is like a colocynth which tastes bitter and has a bad smell." (Bukhari)

- Note that even the hypocrite is elevated to some degree if they recite the Quran.

Is the Quran the best form of dhikr in all situations?

Generally speaking the Quran is the best form of dhikr, however in certain situations other forms of dhikr are better. Examples:

- We are prohibited from reciting Quran during rukoo' (bowing) in prayer. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Indeed I have been told not to recite Qur’aan in rukoo’ and sujood.” (Muslim)

- To say the morning adhkaar after Fajr prayer is better than reciting Quran. This is what the Salaf (pious predecessors) used to do.

Thus, as we mentioned previously, certain situations, places, times, and so on make some acts of worship more superior than others.

Are the surahs and verses of the Quran equal or do they vary in virtue to the point they impact the Dhikr?

From a aqeedah perspective, the Quran is all virtuous. However, there are Surahs and verses that are more virtuous than others.

Ahadeeth have been narrated regarding the virtue of Surat Al-Ikhlaas, Al-Faatihah, Al-Baqarah, Aal-Imran and several other surahs.

Also, the greatest verse in the Book of Allah is Ayat Al-Kursiy (Al-Baqarah 2:255).

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Fiqh Al Adhkaar (Jurisprudence of the Remembrance of Allah ta'aala) 11ert10



Are the names and attributes of Allah equal in virtue or do they vary to the point where they impact the dhikr?

Yes, the names and attributes of Allah may vary in virtue. Evidence for this:

• The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Allah wrote a decree before He created the universe (saying); My mercy prevails over My wrath, and it is written with Him above the Throne.” (Bukhari)

• The scholars differed as to what is the greatest name of Allah. There are three opinions:

1. The greatest name of Allah is Al-Hayyul-Qayyum (the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists) because this name is found in the three surahs mentioned in the saying of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم : “The greatest name of Allah appears in three soorahs of the Qur’aan: in al-Baqarah, Aal ‘Imraan and Ta-Ha.” (Narrated by Ibn Majaah (3856) and al-Haakim (1/686); classed as hasan by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah (746).)

2. Allah is the greatest name:

It was narrated that Buraydah al-Aslami said: The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم heard a man supplicating and saying: O Allah, I ask You by virtue of my bearing witness that You are Allah, the One, the Self-Sufficient Master, Who begets not nor was begotten, and there is none co-equal or comparable to Him. He (the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم) said: “By the One in Whose hand is my soul, he has asked Allah by His greatest name, which if He is called upon thereby He answers and if He is asked thereby He gives.” (Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi)

3. Ibn Taymiyyah's Opinion: The greatest name of Allah is hidden so that our du'aa is not made toward just one name but all of the names of Allah. (Similarly, Laylatul Qadr in Ramadan is hidden from us so that we strive in all ten nights of Ramadan).

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Fiqh Al Adhkaar (Jurisprudence of the Remembrance of Allah ta'aala) 11ert10


Best form of Dhikr after the Quran

The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “The most beloved of words to Allah are four:
سبحان الله Subhaan Allah (Glory be to Allah),

الحمد لله al-hamdu Lillaah (praise be to Allah),

لا إله إلا الله Laa ilaaha ill-Allah (there is no god except Allah) and

الله أكبر Allahu akbar (Allah is Most Great).”
(Muslim)

Many virtues have been related to these four words, including the following:

• The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Every person’s every joint must perform a charity every day the sun comes up, every tasbeehah is a charity, every tahmeedah is a charity, every tahleelah is a charity, every takbeerah is a charity, enjoining what is good is a charity, forbidding what is evil is a charity, and if you do two rak’ahs at duha time (the forenoon), that may be sufficient.” (Muslim)

• The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: "That I say: Subhaana Allah, wal-hamdu Lillaah wa laa ilaaha ill-Allah, wa Allahu akbar (Glory be to Allah, praise be to Allah, there is no god except Allah, and Allah is Most Great)is dearer to me than that upon which the sun has risen." (Muslim)

• The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Whoever says Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah wahdahu laa shareeka lah, lahu’l-mulk wa lahu’l-hamd wa huwa ‘ala kulli shay’in qadeer one hundred times in a day, it will be as if he freed ten slaves, and one hundred hasanaat (good deeds) will be recorded for him, and one hundred sayi’aat (bad deeds) will be erased from him, and it will be a protection for him against the Shaytaan all that day until evening comes. No one can do anything better than that except one who does more.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

• The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Whoever says Subhaan Allaah wa bi hamdih (Praise and glory be to Allah) one hundred times, morning and evening, his sins will be erased even if they are like the foam of the sea.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

• The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Whoever glorifies Allah (says Subhaan Allah) thirty-three times immediately after each prayer, and praises Allah (says Al-hamdu Lillaah) thirty-three times, and magnifies Allah (says Allaahu akbar) thirty-three times, this makes ninety-nine, then to complete one hundred says Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah wahdahu laa shareeka lahu, lahu’l-mulk wa lahu’l-hamd wa huwa ‘ala kulli shay’in qadeer (There is no god except Allah Alone, with no partner, His is the power and His is the praise, and He is Able to do all things) – his sins will be forgiven even if they are like the foam of the sea.” (Muslim)

• The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Two words which are light on the tongue and heavy in the Balance, and beloved to the Most Merciful: Subhaana Allaah wa bihamdih, subhaan Allaah il-‘Azeem (Glory and praise be to Allah, glory be to Allah the Almighty).” (Bukhari and Muslim)

• The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Whoever says ‘Subhaan Allaah il-‘Azeem wa bi hamdih (Glory and praise be to Allah the Almighty),’ a palm tree will be planted for him in Paradise.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 3465; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi.

• Reported in the hadeeth of ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib (may Allah be pleased with him), who said that Faatimah (upon whom be peace) came to the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم and asked him for a servant. He said, “Shall I not tell you of something that is better for you than that? When you go to sleep, say ‘Subhaan Allaah’ thirty-three times, ‘Al-hamdu Lillah’ thirty-three times, and ‘Allaahu akbar’ thirty four times.” (Bukhari)

• The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: "Who is incapable among you to do one thousand good deed everyday?! One asked the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم : 'How can one of us earn one thousand good deeds everyday?' The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم replied: "If one says Subhaana Allah one hundred times, he will be credited (by Allah) with one thousand good deeds or one thousand misdeeds of his will be forgiven." (Muslim)

• Juwairiya reported that Allah's Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم came out from (her apartment) in the morning as she was busy in observing her dawn prayer in her place of worship. He came back in the forenoon and she was still sitting there. He صلى الله عليه و سلم said to her: You have been in the same seat since I left you. She said: Yes. Thereupon Allah's Apostle صلى الله عليه و سلم said: I recited four words three times after I left you and if these are to be weighed against what you have recited since morning these would outweigh them and (these words) are: Subhaan Allaah wa bi hamdihi ‘adada khalqihi wa ridaa nafsihi wazinata ‘arshihi wa midaada kalimaatihi (Glory be to Allah and praise be to Him (as great as) the number of His creatures, the extent of His satisfaction, the weight of His domain and the ink (needed to write down His countless) signs (of presence, omnipotence and grace)).” (Muslim)

• The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: "I met Ibraheem on the night I was taken on my night journey (night of Israa ). So he said: O' Muhammad! Convey to your nation As-Salam from me, and inform them that Paradise is of good soil, palatable water, and that it is a flat place and its enplantment [is]: Subhaana Allah, al-hamdu Lillaah, laa ilaaha ill-Allah, wa Allahu akbar (Glory be to Allah, praise be to Allah, there is no god except Allah, and Allah is Most Great)." (Narrated by al-Tirmidhi; classed as hasan by Albani)

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Fiqh Al Adhkaar (Jurisprudence of the Remembrance of Allah ta'aala) 11ert10




لا إله إلا الله Laa ilaaha ill-Allah (there is no god except Allah)


Meaning of Laa ilaaha ill-Allah:

• لا إله La ilaaha (there is no god) is the negation of the existence and right of worship of all false gods. إلا الله Ill-Allah (except Allah) affirms that worship is due to Allah alone.

• Linguistically speaking, the word Allah comes from the one you deeply love. This love leads to worship which leads to obedience.

• إله ilaah (god) is the one that is worshipped. Most deviant sects deviated from this point. For example, some claimed that ilaah means the one capable of creating. Another (deviant sect) said that ilaah means to be confused, thus they raise doubt about the existence of Allah.


Virtues of Laa ilaaha ill-Allah:

Gate to paradise: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “I bear testimony that there is no god except Allah and that I am His messenger. The slave (of Allah) who meets Allah with these two (testimonies) having no doubt about them, will enter Paradise.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

Protection from the Hellfire: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “Allah has forbidden for the Hell-fire anyone who says La ilaaha illa Allah (there is none worthy of worship except Allah), desiring the face [and pleasure] of Allah.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

Intercession of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “The happiest person that will benefit from my intercession is the one who said La ilaaha illa Allah (there is none worthy of worship except Allah) sincerely from his heart.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

The gates of Paradise will be opened: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “There is no one among you who does wudoo; and does it well, then says, Ashhadu an laa ilaaha ill-Allaah wahdahu laa shareeka lah, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhu was rasooluhu (I bear witness that there is no god except Allah alone, with no partner or associate, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger) but the eight gates of Paradise will be opened for him and he will enter through whichever one he wants.” (Muslim)

Saying it 10 times = freeing four slaves: 'Amr b. Maimun reported: He who uttered: " Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah wahdahu laa shareeka lah, lahu’l-mulk wa lahu’l-hamd wa huwa ‘ala kulli shay’in qadeer (There is no god but Allah, the One, having no partner with Him, His is the Sovereignty and all praise is due to Him and He is Potent over everything)" ten times, he is like one who emancipated four slaves from the progeny of Isma'il. Rabi' b. Khuthaim narrated a hadith like this. Sha'bi reported: I said to Rabi': From whom did you hear it? He said: From 'Amr b. Maimun. I came to 'Amr b. Maimun and said to him: From whom did you hear this hadith? He said: from Ibn Abi Laila. I came to Ibn Abi Laila and said to him: From whom did you hear this hadith? He said: From Abu Ayyub Ansari, who narrated from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). (Muslim)

Situations in which saying La ilaaha illa Allah is ordained:

• Entering Islam
• At the time of death
• After Salah
• Adhaan (call to prayer) and iqaamah
• Tashahud in salah
• Morning and evening adhkaar
• Eid prayer

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Fiqh Al Adhkaar (Jurisprudence of the Remembrance of Allah ta'aala) 11ert10



سبحان الله Subhaan Allah (Glory be to Allah)
Meaning of Subhaan Allah::


• Linguistically: to free something from any defect. It is taken from the word al-sabh which means being far from something.

• Technically: to free Allah from all evil. Declaring Allah to be above any fault, shortcoming, corrupt notions or false idea.

Virtues of Subhaan Allah::

• It is something that we share with all creation. Everything on this earth makes tasbeeh, as Allah says:

سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

"Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth exalts Allah , and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise." (Al-Hashr 59:1)

• Allah ordered us to make tasbeeh:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ ذِكْرًا كَثِيرًا*وَسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا

"O you who have believed, remember Allah with much remembrance. And exalt Him morning and afternoon." (Al-Ahzaab 33:41-42)

• Allah made tasbeeh of Himself:

سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي أَسْرَىٰ بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلًا مِّنَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ الْأَقْصَى

"Exalted is He who took His Servant by night from al-Masjid al-Haram to al-Masjid al- Aqsa." (Al-Israa 17:1)

• The angels make tasbeeh, as Allah describes them in the Quran:


يُسَبِّحُونَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ لَا يَفْتُرُونَ


"They exalt [Him] night and day [and] do not slacken." (Al-Anbiyaa 21:20)

• Allah ordered the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم to make tasbeeh:

فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَاسْتَغْفِرْهُ

"Then exalt [Him] with praise of your Lord and ask forgiveness of Him." (Al-Nasr 110:3)

• Allah praises the believers who make tasbeeh:

فِي بُيُوتٍ أَذِنَ اللَّهُ أَن تُرْفَعَ وَيُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ فِيهَا بِالْغُدُوِّ وَالْآصَالِ

"[Such niches are] in mosques which Allah has ordered to be raised and that His name be mentioned therein; exalting Him within them in the morning and the evenings." (An-Nur 24:36)

• The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Two words which are light on the tongue and heavy in the Balance, and beloved to the Most Merciful: Subhaana Allaah wa bihamdih, subhaan Allaah il-‘Azeem (Glory and praise be to Allah, glory be to Allah the Almighty).” (Bukhari and Muslim)

• The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said: “Whoever says ‘Subhaan Allaah il-‘Azeem wa bi hamdih (Glory and praise be to Allah the Almighty),’ a palm tree will be planted for him in Paradise.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 3465; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi.

Situations in which Tasbeeh is ordained:
• After Salah
• In sujood (prostration) and rukoo' (bowing)
• Morning and evening adhkaar
• Upon riding a car and other forms of transportation
• During thunder
• When descending
• To notify the Imam of a mistake during salah
• Before going to sleep
• When the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم saw something he disliked he would say subhaanAllah.

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Fiqh Al Adhkaar (Jurisprudence of the Remembrance of Allah ta'aala)
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