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 Book Thirty Nine – The Book on Agriculture

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PostSubject: Book Thirty Nine – The Book on Agriculture   Book Thirty Nine – The Book on Agriculture EmptyMon Nov 29, 2010 6:05 pm


As Salamu Alaikum

Bismillah


Book Thirty Nine – The Book on Agriculture


Hadith Number 513.

Narrated by Anas bin Malik (Radhi Allahu Anhu): Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said, "There is none amongst the Muslims who plants a tree or sows seeds, and then a bird, or a person or an animal eats from it, but is regarded as a charitable gift for him."


Hadith Number 514.

Narrated by Abu Umama al-Bahili : I saw some agricultural equipments and said: "I heard the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) saying: "There is no house in which these equipment enters except that Allah will cause humiliation to enter it." (*)


* This Hadith indicates that the profession of cultivation is often a source of oppression and humiliation especially under the feudal system. By indulging in this work, one may neglect Jihad in Allah's Cause and other important Allah's obligations. It is also said that this Hadith is concerned with those living near the enemies: If they goy busy in agriculture and left chivalry, the enemies might overcome and humiliate them. Of course. the Hadith should not be taken literally. Farming is not undesirable by itself but we should beware the results of indulging too much in it. (Fath-ul-Bari Vol 5 page 402)


Hadith Number 515.

Narrated by Abu Hurairah (Radhi Allahu Anhu): Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said, "Whoever keeps a dog, one Qirat of the reward of his good deeds is deducted daily, unless the dog is used for guarding a farm or cattle." Abu Hurairah (Radhi Allahu Anhu) (in another narration) said from the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam), "unless it is used for guarding sheep or farms, or for hunting." Narrated Abu Hazim from Abu Hurairah (Radhi Allahu Anhu): The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said, "A dog for guarding cattle or for hunting."


Hadith Number 516.

Narrated by As-Sa'ib bin Yazid : Abu Sufyan bin Abu Zuhair, a man from Azd Shanu'a and one of the companions of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said, "I heard Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) saying, 'If one keeps a dog which is meant for guarding neither a farm nor cattle, one Qirat of the reward of his good deeds is deducted daily." I said, "Did you hear this from Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam)?" He said, "Yes, by the Lord of this Masjid."


Hadith Number 517.

Narrated by Abu Hurairah (Radhi Allahu Anhu): The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said, "While a man was riding a cow, it turned towards him and said, 'I have not been created for this purpose (i.e. carrying), I have been created for sloughing." The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) added, "I, Abu Bakr and 'Umar believe in the story." The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) went on, "A wolf caught a sheep, and when the shepherd chased it, the wolf said, 'Who will be its guard on the day of wild beasts, when there will be no shepherd for it except me?' "After narrating it, the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said, "I, Abu Bakr and 'Umar too believe it." Abu Salama (a sub-narrator) said, "Abu Bakr and 'Umar were not present then." (*)

(It has been written that a wolf also spoke to one of the companions of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) near Al-Madinah as narrated in Fatah-al-Bari (Vol 8 page 23))


Narrated Unais bin 'Amr: Ahban bin Aus (Radhi Allahu Anhu) said, "I was amongst my sheep. Suddenly a wolf caught a sheep and I shouted at it. The wolf sat on its tail and addressed me, saying, 'Who will look after it (i.e. the sheep) when you will be busy and not able to look after it? Do you forbid me the provision which Allah has provided me?' " Ahban added, "I clapped my hands and said, 'By Allah, I have never seen anything more curious and wonderful than this!' On that the wolf said, 'There is something (more curious) and wonderful than this; that is, Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) in those palm trees, inviting people to Allah (i.e. Islam).' "Unais bin 'Amr further said, "Then Ahban went to Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) and informed him what happened and embraced Islam."


* The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) talked on behalf of Abu Bakr and Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhu), because he was sure that they would believe the story when they heard it.

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PostSubject: Re: Book Thirty Nine – The Book on Agriculture   Book Thirty Nine – The Book on Agriculture EmptyMon Nov 29, 2010 6:07 pm

As Salamu Alaikum


Hadith Number 518.

Narrated by Abu Hurairah (Radhi Allahu Anhu): The Ansar said to the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) "Distribute the date palm trees between us and our emigrant brothers." He replied, "No." The Ansar said (to the emigrants), "Look after the trees (water and watch them) and share the fruits with us." The emigrants said, "We listen and obey."


Hadith Number 519.

Narrated by 'Abdullah (Radhi Allahu Anhu): The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) got the date palm trees of the tribe of Bani-An-Nadir burnt and the trees cut down at a place called Al-Buwaira. Hassan bin Thabit said in a poetic verse: "The chiefs of Bani Lu'ai found it easy to watch fire spreading at Al-Buwaira." (*)


* The trees were burnt ad the palm trees were cut down to make an open space for fighting.


Hadith Number 520.

Narrated by Rafi' bin Khadij : We worked on farms more than anybody else in Al-Madina. We used to rent the land at the yield of specific delimited portion of it to be given to the landlord. Sometimes the vegetation of that portion was affected by blights etc., while the rest remained safe and vice versa, so the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) forbade this practice. At that time gold or silver were not used (for renting the land). If they provided the seeds, they would get so-and-so much. Al-Hasan said, "There is no harm if the land belongs to one but both spend on it and the yield is divided between them." Az-Zuhri had the same opinion. Al-Hasan said, "There is no harm if cotton is picked on the condition of having half the yield." Ibrahim, Ibn Siain, 'Ata', Al-Hakam, Az-Zuhri and Qatada said, "There is no harm in giving the yarn to the weaver to weave into cloth on the basis that one-third or one-fourth (or any other portion) of the cloth is given to the weaver for his labour." Ma'am said, "There is no harm in hiring animals for a definite (fixed) period on the basis that one-third or one-fourth of the products carried by the animals is given to the owner of the animals."


Hadith Number 521.

Narrated by 'Abdullah bin 'Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhuma): The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) concluded a contract with the people of Khaibar to utilize the land on the condition that half the products of fruits or vegetation would be their share. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) used to give his wives one hundred Wasqs each, eighty Wasqs of dates and twenty Wasqs of barley. (When 'Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhu) became the Caliph) he gave the wives of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) the option of either having the land and water as their shares, or carrying on the previous practice. Some of them chose the land and some chose the Wasqs, and 'Aishah (Radhi Allahu Anha) chose the land.


Hadith Number 522.

Narrated by Ibn 'Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhuma): The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) made a deal with the people of Khaibar that they would have half the fruits and vegetation of the land they cultivated.


Hadith Number 523.

Narrated by 'Amr: I said to Tawus, "I wish you would give up Mukhabara (*) (Share-cropping), for the people say that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) forbade it." On that Tawus replied, "O 'Amr! I give the land to share-croppers and help them. No doubt; the most learned man, namely Ibn 'Abbas told me that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) had not forbidden it but said, 'It is more beneficial for one to give his land free to one's brother than to charge him a fixed rental." (**)


** Mukhabara-The sale of grain and vegetables before it is ripe and that they are free from diseases and blights, and their benefit is evident.

* Share cropping is not forbidden, but it is recommended that one should let his Muslim brethren utilize one’s own land without charging them anything.




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PostSubject: Re: Book Thirty Nine – The Book on Agriculture   Book Thirty Nine – The Book on Agriculture EmptyMon Nov 29, 2010 6:28 pm

As Salamu Alaikum


Hadith Number 524.

Narrated by Ibn 'Umar : Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) gave the land of Khaibar to the Jew's on the condition that they work on it and cultivate it, and be given half of its yield.


Hadith Number 525.

Narrated by Rafi: We worked on farms more than anybody else in Al-Madinah. We used to rent the land and say to the owner, "The yield of this portion is for us and the yield of that portion is for you (as the rent)." One of those portions might yield something and the other might not. So, the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) forbade us to do so.


Hadith Number 526.

Narrated by 'Abdullah bin 'Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhu): The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said, "While three men were walking, It started raining and they took shelter (refuge) in a cave in a mountain. A big rock rolled down from the mountain and closed the mouth of the cave. They said to each other, "Think of good deeds which you did for Allah's sake only, and invoke Allah by giving reference to those deeds so that He may remove this rock from you." One of them said, 'O Allah! I had old parents and small children and I used to graze the sheep for them. On my return to them in the evening, I used to milk (the sheep) and start providing my parents first of all before my children. One day I was delayed and came late at night and found my parents sleeping. I milked (the sheep) as usual and stood by their heads. I hated to wake them up and disliked to give milk to my children before them, although my children were weeping (because of hunger) at my feet till the day dawned. O Allah! If I did this for Your sake only, kindly remove the rock so that we could see the sky through it.' So, Allah removed the rock a little and they saw the sky. The second man said, 'O Allah! I was in love with a cousin of mine like the deepest love a man may have for a woman. I wanted to outrage her chastity but she refused unless I gave her one hundred Dinars. So, I struggled to collect that amount. And when I sat between her legs, she said, 'O Allah's slave! Be afraid of Allah and do not deflower me except rightfully (by marriage).' So, I got up. O Allah! If I did it for Your sake only, please remove the rock.' The rock shifted a little more. Then the third man said, 'O Allah! I employed a labourer for a Faraq of rice and when he finished his job and demanded his right, I presented it to him, but he refused to take it. So, I sowed the rice many time till I gathered cows and their shepherd (from the yield). (Then after some time) He came and said to me, 'Fear Allah (and give me my right)." I said, 'Go and take those cows and the shepherd.' He said, 'Be afraid of Allah! Don't mock at me.' I said, 'I am not mocking at you. Take (all that).' So, he took all that. O Allah! If I did that for Your sake only, please remove the rest of the rock.' So, Allah removed the rock."


Hadith Number 527.

Narrated by Zaid bin Aslam : From his father... Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhu) said, "But for the future Muslim generations, I would have distributed the land of the villages I conquer among the soldiers as the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) distributed the land of Khaibar."


Hadith Number 528.

Narrated by 'Aishah (Radhi Allahu Anha): The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said, "He who cultivates land that does not belong to anybody is more rightful (to own it)." 'Urwa said, "Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhu) gave the same verdict in his Caliphate."



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PostSubject: Re: Book Thirty Nine – The Book on Agriculture   Book Thirty Nine – The Book on Agriculture EmptyMon Nov 29, 2010 6:32 pm

As Salamu Alaikum



Hadith Number 529.

Narrated by 'Abdullah bin 'Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhuma): While the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) was passing the night at his place of rest in Dhul-Hulaifah in the bottom of the valley (of Aqiq), he saw a dream and it was said to him, "You are in a blessed valley." Musa said, "Salim let our camels kneel at the place where 'Abdullah used to make his camel kneel, seeking the place where Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) used to take a rest, which is situated below the Masjid which is in the bottom of the valley; it is midway between the Masjid and the road."


Hadith Number 530.

Narrated by 'Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhu): While the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) was in Al-'Aqiq he said, "Someone (meaning Jibril) came to me from my Lord tonight (in my dream) and said, 'Offer the prayer in this blessed valley and say (I intend to perform) Umrah along with Hajj (together).'"


Hadith Number 531.

Narrated by Ibn 'Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhuma): Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhu) expelled the Jews and the Christians from Hijaz. When Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) had conquered Khaibar, he wanted to expel the Jews from it as its land became the property of Allah, His Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam), and the Muslims. Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) intended to expel the Jews but they requested him to let them stay there on the condition that they would do the labour and get half of the fruits. Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) told them, "We will let you stay on thus condition, as long as we wish." So, they (i.e. Jews) kept on living there until 'Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhu) forced them to go towards Taima' and Ariha'.


Hadith Number 532.

Narrated by Rafi bin Khadij: My uncle Zuhair said, "Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) forbade us to do a thing which was a source of help to us." I said, "Whatever Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said was right." He said, "Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) sent for me and asked, 'What are you doing with your farms?' I replied, 'We give our farms on rent on the basis that we get the yield produced at the banks of the water streams (rivers) for the rent, or rent it for some Wasqs of barley and dates.' Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said, 'Do not do so, but cultivate (the land) yourselves or let it be cultivated by others gratis, or keep it uncultivated.' I said, 'We hear and obey.'


Hadith Number 533.

Narrated by Jabir (Radhi Allahu Anhu): The people used to rent their land for cultivation for one-third, one-fourth or half its yield. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said, "Whoever has land should cultivate it himself or give it to his (Muslim) brother gratis; otherwise keep it uncultivated."

Narrated Abu Hurairah (Radhi Allahu Anhu): Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said, "Whoever has land should cultivate it himself or give it to his (Muslim) brother gratis; otherwise he should keep it uncultivated."


Hadith Number 534.

Narrated by 'Amr: When I mentioned it (i.e. the narration of Rafi 'bin Khadij: no. 532) to Tawus, he said, "It is permissible to rent the land for cultivation, for Ibn 'Abbas (Radhi Allahu Anhuma) said, 'The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) did not forbid that, but said: One had better give the land to one's brother gratis rather than charge a certain amount for it.'"


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PostSubject: Re: Book Thirty Nine – The Book on Agriculture   Book Thirty Nine – The Book on Agriculture EmptyMon Nov 29, 2010 6:38 pm

As Salamu Alaikum


Hadith Number 535.

Narrated by Nafi: Ibn 'Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhuma) used to rent his farms in the time of Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, and in the early days of Muawiya.(Radhi Allahu Anhum) Then he was told the narration of Rafi 'bin Khadij that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) had forbidden the renting of farms. Ibn 'Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhuma) went to Rafi' and I accompanied him. He asked Rafi who replied that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) had forbidden the renting of farms. Ibn 'Umar said, "You know that we used to rent our farms in the life-time of Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) for the yield of the banks of the water streams (rivers) and for certain amount of figs.


Hadith Number 536.

Narrated by Salim: Abdullah bin 'Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhuma) said, "I knew that the land was rented for cultivation in the life-time of Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam)." Later on Ibn 'Umar (Radhi Allahu Anhu) was afraid that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) had forbidden it, and he had no knowledge of it, so he gave up renting his land.


Hadith Number 537.

Narrated by Hanzla bin Qais : Rafi bin Khadij said, "My two uncles told me that they (i.e. the companions of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam)) used to rent the land in the life-time of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) for the yield on the banks of water streams (rivers) or for a portion of the yield stipulated by the owner of the land. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) forbade it." I said to Rafi, "What about renting the land for Dinars and Dirhams?" He replied, "There is no harm in renting for Dinars-Dirhams. Al-Laith said, "If those who have discernment for distinguishing what is legal from what is illegal looked into what has been forbidden concerning this matter they would not permit it, for it is surrounded with dangers." (*)


* Al-Laith agrees in the Hadith with the common opinion of the scholars who think that renting the land is forbidden if it leads to arrogance and mischief, the principle of renting is not illegal. The scholars differ as to what ways of renting are permissible. (Fath-ul-Bari Vol 5 page 423)



Hadith Number 538.

Narrated by Abu Hurairah (Radhi Allahu Anhu): Once the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) was narrating (a story), while a Bedouin was sitting with him. "One of the inhabitants of Paradise will ask Allah to allow him to cultivate the land. Allah will ask him, 'Are you not living in the pleasures you like?' He will say, 'Yes, but I like to cultivate the land.' " The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) added, "When the man (will be permitted he) will sow the seeds and the plants will grow up and get ripe, ready for reaping and so on till it will be as huge as mountains within a wink. Allah will then say to him, 'O son of Adam! Take here you are, gather (the yield); nothing satisfies you.' " On that, the Bedouin said, "The man must be either from Quraish (i.e. an emigrant) or an Ansari, for they are farmers, whereas we are not farmers." The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) smiled (at this).


Hadith Number 539.

Narrated by Sahl bin Sad (Radhi Allahu Anhu): We used to be very happy on Friday as an old lady used to cut some roots of the Silq, which we used to plant on the banks of our small water streams, and cook them in a pot of hers, adding to them, some grains of barley. (Ya'qub, the sub-narrator said, "I think the narrator mentioned that the food did not contain fat or melted fat (taken from meat).") When we offered the Friday prayer we would go to her and she would serve us with the dish. So, we used to be happy on Fridays because of that. We used not to take our meals or the midday nap except after the Jumu'ah prayer (i.e. Friday prayer).


Hadith Number 540.

Narrated by Abu Hurairah (Radhi Allahu Anhu): The people say that Abu Hurairah (Radhi Allahu Anhu) narrates too many narrations. In fact Allah knows whether I say the truth or not. They also ask, "Why do the emigrants and the Ansar not narrate as he does?" In fact, my emigrant brethren were busy trading in the markets, and my Ansar brethren were busy with their properties. I was a poor man keeping the company of Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) and was satisfied with what filled my stomach. So, I used to be present while they (i.e. the emigrants and the Ansar) were absent, and I used to remember while they forgot (the Hadith). One day the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said, "Whoever spreads his sheet till I finish this statement of mine and then gathers it on his chest, will never forget anything of my statement." So, I spread my covering sheet which was the only garment I had, till the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) finished his statement and then I gathered it over my chest. By Him Who had sent him (i.e. Allah's Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam)) with the truth, since then I did not forget even a single word of that statement of his, until this day of mine. By Allah, but for two verses in Allah's Book, I would never have related any narration (from the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam)). (These two verses are): "Verily! Those who conceal the clear signs and the guidance which we have sent down... (up to) the Merciful.' (Surah Al-Baqarah 2: 159-160)


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