Actions that Nullify One’s Prayer
There are eight actions that nullify one's prayer:
1) Speaking, but only when:
(a) one is conscious that he is in prayer,
(b) one has knowledge of what he is doing, and
(c) one does it on purpose. But when one speaks forgetfully or from ignorance, then his prayer is not nullified.
5) Part of one's 'Awrah being exposed.
6) A significant turning from the direction of the Qiblah.
7) Much and continuous frivolous movement or fiddling around.
8) Exiting from the state of purity. Speaking ... one does it on purpose
: Zaid bin Arqam (Radhi Allahu Anhu) said, "We used to talk during prayer; one of us would speak to the man praying beside him, until this verse was revealed:
And stand before Allah with obedience [and do not speak to others during the Salat (prayers)].
(Surah Al-Baqarah 2: 238)
We were ordered to remain quiet and we were forbidden from talking." But when one speaks forgetfully or from ignorance, then his prayer is not nullified
: When Mu'awiyyah bin Al-Hakam As-Sulami (Radhi Allahu Anhu) spoke during prayer, not knowing the ruling thereof, the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said to him: Indeed man's talk is not appropriate to this prayer; verily, it (i.e. the prayer) is only glorification, exaltation (of Allah), and the recitation of Qur'an. (Recorded by Muslim)
Even though the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) ordered him not to talk during prayer, he didn't order him to repeat the prayer. Laughing
: Ibn Al-Munthir stated that there is Ijma ' (consensus) in this issue: laughing renders one's prayer void. Eating and Drinking
: Ibn Al-Munthir said, "Everyone that we know of agrees that whoever eats or drinks on purpose during a compulsory prayer has to repeat that prayer." Part of one's 'Awrah' being exposed
: As I already mentioned in lesson six, to cover one's 'Awrah' is one of the conditions of prayer. So if one exposes his 'Awrah' on purpose, his prayer is nullified. A significant turning from the direction of the Qiblah
: Facing the Qiblah is also one of the conditions of prayer .(refer to lesson six), so if one turns significantly away from that direction on purpose, his prayer is nullified. Much and continuous frivolous movement or fiddling around
: If one makes many extraneous movements continuously, movements that are not connected to the prayer, then by consensus of the scholars, his prayer is void. After mentioning this ruling, the author of Al-Kafi says, "If the movements are few, then the prayer is not nullified ... because the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) carried Umamah during prayer -when he would stand, he would carry her, and when he would go down for prostration, he would place her on the ground ... and in the Eclipse prayer, he moved forward and backward." Exiting from the state of purity
: Purity is one of the conditions of prayer: if it is nullified, so too is the prayer. And the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:
Allah does not accept the prayer of one of you when he commits Hadath until he then performs ablution.